These conference proceedings gather expert articles about different ways of understanding immigrant incorporation, both historically and in contemporary society. It is important to examine critically what is meant by the term "integration". Who are targeted with integration policies and who are left out? In which domains of society (e.g. education, labor market and families) is integration expected to take place and at what speed? What is the desired outcome of integration, both for immigrants and for members of the receiving society? How is this outcome measured and best achieved?